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Crimson Spirit Award honors Horticulture advisor Ade Snider

Ade Snider
Ade Snider, Department of Horticulture

Going the extra mile to help students grow career and research opportunities in the Department of Horticulture, Academic and Internship Coordinator Ade Snider is a newly named 2022 Crimson Spirit Award winner.

Washington State University’s Crimson Spirit recognition honors employees who provide exceptional service and surpass expectations while representing WSU. Honorees receive a plaque, pin, and university-wide acknowledgment at the annual Employee Recognition Reception.

Sharer and solver

Snider was nominated for outstanding assistance to Horticulture students, faculty, and staff.

Peers say she combines the advising process with technical skills, and generously shares her knowledge of IT, programs, and systems to solve technical challenges.

When COVID-19 impacted teaching, she found solutions that would enable virtual learning to run as smoothly as possible. And, when the pandemic precluded an important in-person fundraiser, she helped set up a virtual plant sale for the Horticulture Club.

“Ade loves a challenge,” one nominator wrote. “If something seems too difficult to work out, she sticks with it and usually comes up with a solution. She says she looks at challenges like a jigsaw puzzle and brilliantly is able to pull things together.”

Ade “likes helping us because that’s just who she is, but she also loves working for all of WSU’s students,” another testimonial stated.

Snider has been a WSU staff member since 2008 and part of the Department of Horticulture since 2014.

Read more about the award and what nominators had to say about Snider at the WSU Crimson Spirit homepage.

WSU student finds internship opportunity through AFA

By Carmen Chandler, CAHNRS Academic Programs

At her first in-person Agriculture Future of America (AFA) Leaders Conference, WSU student Della Paloy met representatives from a well-known food company. She turned in a resume for their summer internship program and, a week after the conference, Della received an internship interview offer from Land O’Lakes.

Della Paloy stands in front of a glass pyramid on the WSU Pullman campus.
Della Paloy

“It was probably the most life-changing email I’ve ever gotten,” Della said. “I had to reread it several times!”

Della is a second-year Agricultural and Food Business Economics student and AFA ambassador. She recently accepted an internship offer with Land O’Lakes following her involvement with AFA.

Last year, as a first-year student, Della had a vision for her post-college career but did not know how to make that happen. After discovering AFA through her college advisor, she applied to participate in an AFA conference without knowing the full benefits of AFA involvement.

AFA is a nonprofit organization aimed at helping college students network and develop their professional skills. AFA works to build leaders through various programs and events that foster positive engagement within the agriculture industry.

Della attended her first AFA Leaders Conference last year, virtually meeting with industry leaders in her fields of interest. After hearing from professionals, Della began to see the different possibilities in an agriculture career.

Della’s favorite part of each AFA Conference is attending the final opportunity fair, where students can discover graduate schools, internships, and opportunities abroad. Major agriculture employers showcase their student employment opportunities and engage with students to help them discover possible career paths. AFA provides other resources such as resume building and personal goal setting to help students excel in their professional careers.

“Every area that a student could need help in, AFA had resources for it,” Della said.

After experiencing her first AFA conference, Della decided that she wanted to expand her involvement with AFA at WSU. Last year, Della was selected to become an AFA ambassador for the 2021-22 school year. She is currently searching for other WSU students who need help getting involved in their agriculture careers. In her ambassador position, Della has been able to connect WSU students with AFA opportunities. This year, Della aims to focus on name recognition to spread awareness of AFA.

Della jokes how “AFA is the best-kept secret in the agriculture industry, but we don’t want to be!”

Della plans to spend the coming summer as a supply chain and sourcing intern doing research with Land O’Lakes. She will be presenting a final research project to the internship program leaders at the end.

Della intends to continue her work next school year as an AFA Campus Ambassador. She hopes to connect with more WSU students to show them the opportunities that can be found through AFA.

Gordillo to be honored with Interdisciplinary Catalyst award

Luz-Maria Gordillo
Luz-Maria Gordillo

Luz-Maria Gordillo, CAHNRS Assistant Dean for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence and an Associate Professor in the WSU College of Arts and Sciences’ (CAS) Department of History, has been selected to receive a CAS Interdisciplinary Catalyst Award.

The award recognizes faculty with exceptional ability to bring their colleagues together across disciplines and institutional boundaries in service to shared research, scholarly, and creative accomplishment.

Based at WSU Vancouver, Gordillo divides her time between research in CAS, where she explores 20th century United States history, Chicanx, Latinx, Gender and Sexuality Studies, and the history of medicine, and leadership in CAHNRS, where she oversees college-spanning efforts to encourage and educate for diversity and provides opportunities to underrepresented groups.

Gordillo hosts monthly CAHNRS Get Together events that build a supportive community for people of color, LGBTQIA+, and other underserved communities in the college. Recent Get Togethers have honored Black History Month in February, and Women’s History Month in March.

Gordillo will be recognized at the tenth annual CAS Appreciation and Recognition Social, to be held Thursday, April 21, at the Courtyard Marriott Hotel, Pullman.

“I like to think of myself as an interdisciplinary thinker, researcher, and leader,” Gordillo said. “I have found that interdisciplinarity not only opens venues for collaborations that are unimaginable, but also it opens and creates new opportunities for traditional disciplines to be more unique and to expand their breadth and depth.

“It’s this approach that has led me to be in the different career positions that I’ve had,” she added. “Wearing different hats as it were in teaching, research, and my approach to leadership positions has allowed me to learn a constellation of approaches to academe, but also to empathize with people who come from different places and different cultural ideals.”

Cross-disciplinary experiences

A Chicana feminist historian with degrees in history, media studies, and film and photography, Gordillo has been a passionate advocate for and practitioner of transdisciplinary academic production throughout her career. Her scholarly publications include books, journal articles, book chapters. Other major interdisciplinary projects include a documentary film, monthly short story segments for Portland’s community radio station, as well as a photographic exhibition and book project at WSU Vancouver on a Cuba visit supporting student exchange with the University of Havana.

Gordillo has extensive administrative experience linking scholarship, creative production, and activism with a commitment to diversity and inclusion. From 2016 to 2018, she served as program leader for the WSU Department of Critical Culture, Gender, and Race Studies (CCGRS), while also creating and overlooking the interdisciplinary Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies minor at WSU Vancouver.

Gordillo also served for four years as chair of the Council on Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion, during which she supported local, national, and global topics including environmental justice, artistic collaborations among students of color, films on indigenous rights, Latinx and Chicanx conference presentations, curriculum development, and collaborative projects with Native American allies and the League of United Latin American Citizens.

In Vancouver, Gordillo is the Campus Director for Faculty Equity and Outreach. In her current position as assistant dean in CAHNRS, she works for sustained, long-term inclusive excellence in recruiting, supporting, and retaining faculty, staff, and students of color. She also collaborates and advises Extension leaders in Community and Economic Development, Agriculture and Natural Resources, and Youth and Family Development units to increase effective outreach and engagement with communities of color and underserved populations.

Learn more about her work at Gordillo’s research website.

Learn about Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence efforts in CAHNRS at the DEI website.

Diverse, Equitable, Inclusive projects receive funding in new program

Small grants can have big impacts, and big impacts are the goal of the first round of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence Mini Grants recently announced by WSU’s College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences (CAHNRS).Graphic logo with words CAHNRS For ALL: Diversity, Equity, Inclusion. The word ALL is centered and dominant, in block letters with over 20 mini logos inside. The logos represent aspects of college, including  paws, fruits, trees, bees, microscopes, and much more.

“I’ve learned that when you provide funding for DEI projects, they tend to have a large effect on a community,” said Luz Maria Gordillo, CAHNRS Assistant Dean for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI). “And not just the college or university community, but local communities around us.”

Three projects received $2,500 in funding during the first round of these grants from a group of nine applications. Originally, only two grants were to be funded but another was added when additional resources were secured. That third proposal also received matching funds from WSU’s Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (IAREC).

The grants are meant to address one of the key themes of the CAHNRS strategic plan: Institutional Diversity, Integrity, Openness, and Accountability, to create and sustain a college community that is diverse, inclusive, and equitable; and to uphold a culture of integrity, excellence, stewardship, and accountability in pursuit of CAHNRS’s goals and economic viability.

Gordillo poses in front of a stock background featuring a Cosmic Crisp apple tree
Luz Maria Gordillo

“We’ll measure the impact of these grants and we plan for more grants to continue over the long-term,” Gordillo said. “They are a great platform for community development, research collaboration, plus engagement of different voices.”

Here are the abstracts for all three funded projects:

Developing Capacity for WSU Partnerships with Local Tribes to Initiate Projects that Merge Science and Indigenous Knowledge

In this collaborative project, proposer Laura Bartley, Associate Professor, Institute of Biological Chemistry, and collaborators Maren Friesen, Associate Professor, Crop and Soil Sciences and Plant Pathology, Tarah Sullivan, Associate Professor, Crop and Soil Sciences, and Affiliate Professor, Center for Native American Research and Collaboration (CNARC), and Ken Lokensgard, Co-Director, Center for Native American Research and Collaboration, (CNARC) take steps to transform the social and intellectual fabric of academia at WSU by creating a network among and between academic researchers and local tribes.

Their goal is to create a WSU-UI network with awareness of Indigenous Knowledge and tribal needs and enhanced capability to mentor and collaborate with Indigenous scholars, establish initial relationships and awareness of local tribe interests, and create a framework for developing proposals to support joint knowledge-generating and nation-building projects.

India Night

The Indian Students Association (ISA) will hold India Night, the biggest event in their portfolio. The event is planned for April 17, 2022 (tentative) and it is a superb confluence of cultures where there will be food, music, dance, and a glimpse of the rich and diverse Indian culture in the region. This celebration of Indian culture promotes diversity, equity, and inclusivity through opportunities and collaborations between different communities on and off campus, who organize and participate in the event.

The Indian Students Association has a deep personal and emotional connection that impacts not only the lives of our student community but also the communities around Pullman, Moscow, and Spokane. India Night offers music, art, and food that connects the audience through culinary and artistic traditions with Indian culture promoting cultural exchange and diversifying our learning communities.

Unity in Diversity: A Holistic Approach for Advancing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusive Excellence at WSU Prosser Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center IAREC 

IAREC is a ‘mini cosmos’ where faculty, staff and students from diverse nationalities and ethnic backgrounds work together advancing research knowledge to solve complex agricultural challenges. We propose to expand CAHNRS DEI initiatives and activities at IAREC to advance a culture of inclusivity in professional activities and personal life to respect socio-cultural identity and understand distinct cultures, traditions, and value systems. This proposal aims to bridge the gap between IAREC and Prosser communities by hosting events at local venues for community building, engagement support, and empowerment.

The events will include training DEI courses for IAREC faculty, staff, and students, as well as a series of guest speakers that will address topics related to social justice, Native American Heritage, African American History, American Hispanic/Latinx history, and others to enrich knowledge and understanding of diverse cultures in a globalized world to achieve cultural understanding and enrichment at IAREC.

The CAHNRS Office of Research has partnered with the DEI Committee to fund this third proposal. IAREC is also partnering to match funds for this award.

Webinar: A year in review of eastern Washington forest health

Larvae-damaged tree.
Larval damage to a Washington conifer. Learn about trends from climate, disease, and pests in an upcoming forestry Year in Review co-hosted by WSU Extension.

Curious about the state of forest health in eastern Washington? Want to learn about the impacts of the 2021 drought?

Join WSU Extension Foresters and experts from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources in a Zoom webinar, “Eastern Washington Forest Health Year-In-Review, 5 p.m. Tuesday, March 15, examining trends over the past year.

Annually, state and federal foresters publish “Forest Health Highlights in Washington,” a year-by-year overview of insect, disease, and other disturbances affecting state woodlands. This webinar discusses early findings, helping landowners and natural resource professionals stay informed about what’s happening in regional forests. It’s a way for small forest landowners to learn about issues they may face in the coming year, says Sean Alexander, WSU Extension Northeast Washington Forester and webinar organizer.

Admission is free. Register at

Youth-led action to heal opioid epidemic earns Society honors for CROP+TR

SAR award group
From left, CROP+TR team members including Prevention Science doctoral student Erica Doering, Research Coordinator Kate Hampilos, Associate Professor and Co-Director Elizabeth Weybright, and doctoral student Elizabeth Purser take part in the Society for Research on Adolescence’s 2022 annual meeting. Weybright accepted the project’s 2022 Organizational Impact Award, pictured below, on behalf of CROP+TR.

Washington State University’s cross-college efforts to help rural youth and communities overcome the opioid epidemic were honored by the Society for Research on Adolescence.

Praised for its youth-led action research, provider training, and technical assistance, WSU’s Center for Rural Opioid Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery (CROP+TR) earned the Organizational Award for Excellence in Research and Programming for Youth.

Team members including co-leader Elizabeth Weybright, associate professor in the Department of Human Development, research coordinator Kate Hampilos, and doctoral students Erica Doering and Elizabeth Purser accepted the honor at the society’s annual meeting, March 4, 2022, in New Orleans.

The award recognizes significant contributions in science, policies, and programs that serve young people from diverse backgrounds. Recognition focused on the Center’s youth participatory action research project, Take-PART, in which teens in Washington’s Yakima, Spokane, and Clallam counties helped peers and community members understand the opioid crisis.

Award plaque
The 2020 Organizational Impact Award, pictured overlooking the Mississippi River in New Orleans.

Offered to youth through local 4-H programs, Take-PART—the acronym is short for Participatory Action Research with Teens—enabled young people to learn about the epidemic from first responders and experts, then inform others through fair displays, booths, podcasts, and other outreach efforts.

In collaboration with the WSU Colleges of Pharmacy, Nursing, and Medicine, researchers created Opioid 101 digital resources for teens, as well as free on-demand web training on the neurobiology of opioid misuse and addiction, aimed at adults and educators.

“It’s an honor for CROP+TR to be acknowledged for our efforts to empower youth as change-makers in their own communities, and to support those who work with youth and communities to address opioid use,” Weybright said.  “The passion, creativity, and enthusiasm teens bring make them strong advocates for local change. This work is especially important in rural communities who are disproportionately and negatively impacted.”

CROP+TR is a joint venture of the Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, the College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences, and WSU Extension, and is funded by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. In addition to youth, CROP+TR supports organizations and individuals engaged in opioid-related work.

“Although CROP+TR was only established in 2019, they have made significant strides to promote evidence-based programming targeting historically marginalized youth in Washington State,” commented CAHNRS Interim Dean Richard T. Koenig and Floyd College Founding Dean John Tomkowiak in nomination materials. “By engaging teens as true partners in the research process, we see positive outcomes among youth, their families, and the broader community.”

Learn more about the Center’s work here.

WSU students win national landscape competition

By Carmen Chandler, CAHNRS Academic Programs

Three senior Landscape Nursery and Greenhouse Management (LNGM) students, Cora Borgens, Jamie Conner, and Khalil Al-Wazan, won first place in the Fall 2021 LandCare Case Competition.

Overhead view of landscape with different areas highlighted in different colors.
The final result of the winning proposal made by WSU students.

The competition required teams to develop creative landscape solutions for a designated client, solving the client’s priorities to maximize the allotted space while navigating the hurdles of California terrain. Teams filled over 226,000 square feet of landscape, including 80,000 square feet of turf deemed unsustainable in California’s current ongoing drought. They had to install irrigation, improve curb appeal, generate revenue, and increase the client’s return on investment to complete the competition.

After teams received the instructions, a LandCare branch manager mentored them in the process. This mentor could answer questions about the case study and give them a better understanding of what the client wanted. Mentors could only answer the team’s questions, not give opinions or suggestions on the project.

Six university teams had approximately six weeks to create a detailed written case study and a five-to-ten minute video presentation solving the client requests. Team WSU created a nine page written case study and a 29 minute video presentation, surpassing what was expected for the large-scale competition.

“You get all this thrown at you and you aren’t sure what to do with it,” Jamie said.

Meeting with their mentor gave the team more clarity. From there, they delegated the project into three sections, taking on specific tasks to return to the group and combine their ideas.

Each section had its own goal and priorities to fulfill the case requirements. Cora took her area and focused on native plants to create a habitat garden for local wildlife with an accessible sitting area. Her goal was to have a place for wildlife to live and provide entertainment for the employees that will use that area, integrating native habitats into a useful and functional space for both to enjoy.

“Human aesthetics shouldn’t come at the cost of the wildlife that already existed there,” Cora said.

Team WSU learned of their win late last year, two weeks after submitting their project. That wait led to some anxiety.

“Before that point, we firmly believed we could win this,” Khalil said.

The contest provided the students with a new perspective of what they can do with their degree.

“It opened my eyes up to different opportunities,” Jamie said. “After participating in this competition, I can definitely see myself doing landscape.”

Each student received a $1,000 scholarship for winning the competition and walked away with an experience that they will carry throughout their careers.

Fresh from WSU Extension: Freeze damage to crops; Giant hornets; flour food safety

Red cedar foliageScientists at Washington State University Extension share ideas every month through newly published guides. The latest new and revised publications help farmers, landowners, beekeepers, and food preparers improve, understand, and update their practices.

Seasonal Foliage Discoloration and Loss in Pacific Northwest Evergreen Conifer Trees (FS056E, Revised January 2022)
Colorful, falling foliage from deciduous trees is a hallmark of autumn. Some evergreens, such as western redcedar, also have foliage that turns yellow or orange and is shed in fall. Written by Extension Forestry Professor Kevin Zobrist, this publication explores the different foliage retention strategies of trees, the phenomenon of seasonal foliage loss in evergreens, and how it differs from deciduous trees, as well as other seasonal color variations in Pacific Northwest conifers that may look unhealthy but are generally harmless.

A large, dead hornet held in a human hand.
Asian giant hornets are usually about 1.5 to 2 inches in length, with an orange-yellow head and striped abdomen (Photo courtesy WSDA).

Distinguishing Asian Giant Hornet Damage to Honey Bee Colonies (FS370E)
Native to east Asia, the Asian giant hornet was found in 2019 in Washington state’s Whatcom County. The hornet is a potentially devastating predator of honey bees—while bees in the hornet’s home range have evolved a defense against the large hornets, the European honey bee relied on for pollination in the U.S. has not. Written by Postdoctoral Researcher Kelly Kulhanek and Assistant Research Professor Brandon Hopkins, this guide helps keepers identify signs of hornet attack versus other damage to colonies, such as rodents.


Wheat crown illustration
Figure 1. from the Extension guide; Image created by David Brian Fowler, University of Saskatchewan Department of Plant Sciences, Winter Wheat Production Manual.

Assessing Freeze Damage to Winter and Spring Wheat Using a Crown Viability Test (FS369E)
Factors such as available soil water, as well as soil and air temperature, have a major effect on the growth and development of wheat plants. In the drylands of eastern Washington, farmers look to snow cover in winter to provide water for the upcoming growing season and protect the vital crown—the underground growing point where the stem, tillers, and roots connect—against rapidly changing or subfreezing temperatures. Written by Agriculture and Natural Resources Program Unit Assistant Professor Dale Whaley, this guide helps wheat growers identify potential winter and spring freeze damage by using a crown viability test.

Harvesting Blueberries: A Guide to Machine Pick Blueberries for Fresh Market (FS368E)
Fresh-market blueberries are a valuable​ crop, but harvesting high-quality fruits has become challenging due to the cost and decreasing availability of hand-harvest crews. Many growers have turned to machine harvesters. Examining field establishment, planti​ng and field design, pruning and training, harvest, packing facilities, food safety, and other topics, this guide shares practices that can improve harvest efficiency and fruit quality in machine harvesting for the fresh market; authored by WSU Associate Professor Lisa DeVetter, Oregon State University Associate Professor Wei Yang, USDA Research Horticulturist Fumiomi Takeda, and University of Georgia Professor Jinru Chen.

There Are Dangers Lurking in Your Flour (PNW717)
Recent flour recalls highlight how raw flour can cause serious foodborne illness, and should not be treated as a safe product, especially for young children or others at risk. This publication outlines the risks of flour-based crafts and shares steps you can take to keep people safe. Authors include Statewide Consumer Food Safety Specialist Stephanie Smith and WSU Youth and Families Program Research Intern Rachael Beck.

Find all recently published guides on the WSU Extension bookstore.

Grant supports affordable testing to fight Little Cherry Disease

Washington State University will help Washington cherry growers test more trees for the damaging Little Cherry Disease thanks to a Washington State Department of Agriculture Specialty Crop Block Grant received by the Washington State Tree Fruit Association.

Tree branches bearing large numbers of small, red as well as pale cherries.
Cherry trees infected with Little Cherry Disease bear small, bitter or bland fruits that often lack attractive coloring.

Named for its most distinct symptom—small, colorless fruit—what growers call ‘Little Cherry’ is a simultaneous outbreak of Little Cherry virus-2 and the X-disease phytoplasma, both of which produce similar symptoms on infected cherry trees and are difficult to tell apart, even by experts. This is more difficult because symptoms are usually noticed only a few weeks before harvest.

The pathogens are spread in orchards by small insects: the virus by mealybugs, and the phytoplasma by leafhoppers.

Tests are available for growers to learn if a tree is infected, but they can be expensive. The new three-year, $530,000 grant will help to expand testing capacity at WSU’s Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab in Pullman with more equipment and supplies. This support will reduce testing fees by approximately 50%, to $50 per test.

“Affordable and available testing is a key element of our industry’s response to Little Cherry Disease” said Jon DeVaney, WSTFA President. “Washington’s cherry growers appreciate the support of the WSDA Specialty Crop Block Grant Program and WSU’s Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab in this effort.”

“Active, aggressive tree removal is the best way to suppress this outbreak and prevent further spread, and testing is an essential tool to identify trees in the early stages of infection,” said Scott Harper, WSU virologist and director of the Clean Plant Center Northwest. “It will help growers make informed management decisions for their orchards.”

Harper’s lab supported the initial wave of testing in 2018-2019, and commercial labs took over testing in 2020, but few growers could afford to test every tree that they suspected might be infected.

“WSU and collaborating laboratories are working hard to provide growers with Little Cherry testing services,” said Tianna DuPont, a WSU Tree Fruit Extension Specialist. “Additional support for the WSU Plant diagnostic lab is essential to provide sustainable robust public diagnostics so growers can identify and quickly manage the multiple problems that attack their trees.”

Removing infected trees quickly is the best way to fight the disease, as there is no treatment and early removal can limit spread of the virus to nearby trees in an orchard, Harper said. Testing also helps avoid removing a tree exhibiting symptoms that look like the disease, but isn’t infected with little cherry pathogens.

WSU tree fruit scientists work closely with growers to fight diseases and support the Washington cherry industry, which produces more sweet cherries than any other state.

New from Extension: Understanding wireworms; do coffee grounds make good mulch?

Compost containing coffee grounds
Coffee grounds can be used as a component of compost piles.

The latest guides from WSU Extension help farmers manage a persistent insect pest, and also assist home gardeners in learning about useful, and less useful, mulches.

Biology and Management of Wireworms in Western Washington (FS364E)

Wireworms cause damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. With no single, simple solution, these larval pests demand a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control strategies. Authored by B. Diehl, Stephen Bramwell, B.S. Gerdeman, Brook Brouwer, Travis Alexander, this publication shares information, graphics, and photos to help farmers identify, monitor, and manage wireworms.

Using Coffee Grounds in Gardens and Landscapes (FS207E)

Americans consume more than 980 million cups of coffee a day, generating a lot of coffee grounds in the process. Putting coffee grounds to use in the garden makes both economic and environmental sense, and an increasing number of people are using them directly as mulch. Speculation abounds that coffee grounds repel cats, kill slugs, prevent weeds, aerate and acidify the soil, provide nitrogen, and attract earthworms. This publication examines the science behind the use of coffee grounds in gardens and landscapes and provides recommendations for home gardeners to use coffee grounds appropriately. Part of the Home Garden Series, authored by Linda Chalker-Scott.

Dust Mulch Efficacy in Gardens and Landscapes (FS167E)

Dust mulching is a soil-water conservation practice recommended by some popular gardening books and websites for home gardeners. While dust mulching may be an effective practice for dryland agricultural production, there is little scientific support for its use in home gardens. This publication reviews the science behind dust mulching and will guide home gardeners to more appropriate mulch materials for their gardens and landscapes. Authored by Linda Chalker-Scott.

Rubber Mulch Use in Home Gardens and Landscapes (FS163E)

Part of the Home Garden Series, this guide shares up-to-date scientific research on the use of recycled rubber mulches in home landscapes with a focus on human and environmental safety. Scientific research provides ample evidence that rubber mulches should not be used in gardens and landscapes. Authored by Linda Chalker-Scott.

Find more guides at the Extension Publications store in a range of categories, from agriculture and natural resources to 4-H, family and home, energy, economic development, and more.